http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/issue/feed Contour Journal 2019-09-12T16:09:22+00:00 Editorial team editors@contourjournal.org Open Journal Systems <p>Peer-reviewed journal for interdisciplinary research in architecture, urban design and planning</p> http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/98 COMPARING HABITATS 2019-09-12T16:08:29+00:00 Elena Cogato Lanza elena.cogato@epfl.ch Florence Graezer Bideau florence.graezerbideau@epfl.ch Martina Barcelloni Corte martina.barcellonicorte@epfl.ch <p>This Thematic Issue compiles the peer-reviewed articles resulting from the contributions to the the International PhD Seminar "Comparing Habitats". The seminar took place was organized by the Laboratory of Urbanism EPFL , Habitat Research Center EPFL, Institute for Geography and Sustainability UNIL in the frame of Swissuniversities Program for the Doctoral Program of Architecture and Sciences of the City EDAR EPFL</p> <p>Guest edited by&nbsp; Elena Cogato Lanza,Florence Graezer Bideau and Martina Barcelloni Corte</p> 2019-06-19T21:13:25+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/104 Singularités Comparées. Transformer les figures rurales de l’urbain généralisé 2019-09-12T16:08:30+00:00 Antoine Brès antoinebres@bresmariolle.fr Béatrice Mariolle beatricemariolle@bresmariolle.fr <p>Depuis les années 70 la notion de « tissu urbain généralisé »&nbsp; ou d’« urbain généralisé »&nbsp; se fonde essentiellement sur une approche de l’extension à la campagne des usages de la ville. L’espace, passé d’une certaine manière en arrière-plan, n’est plus considéré que comme support neutre d’un processus global d’urbanisation. A la périphérie de la ville compacte, et au-delà, se développeraient ainsi des formes d’urbanisation génériques suivant un processus de diffusion dans les campagnes de formes bâties standardisées (lotissements pavillonnaires, centres commerciaux, zones d’activités,…). Le travail de comparaison que nous avons effectué dans le cadre de la recherche ANR FRUGAL a révélé l’utilité d’un retour à l’espace concret de manière à mieux cerner certaines des caractéristiques de ce qui n’est pas la ville. Notre démarche est partie du constat que ces territoires souffrent d’un impensé en termes de qualités architecturales et paysagères, contrairement aux quartiers de centralité qui font l’objet de toutes les attentions techniques et qualitatives. Elle revendique plusieurs originalités en termes de méthodes, avec comme point de départ, notre volonté de regarder les territoires pour ce qu’ils sont et non plus à partir de leur dépendance aux villes centres. Libérés de ces présupposés (concentration, dispersion, étalement,…) en poursuivant cette démarche, nous avons cherché à définir les phénomènes de mutations spatiales à l’œuvre et leurs possibles transformations. Penser les mutations territoriales et les enjeux d’architecture et de paysage en saisissant les singularités locales, telle était la question en jeu, partant de la conviction que, dans ces territoires à la fois très anciens, si l’on s’en tient aux premiers établissements humains, et encore très jeunes, le substrat rural reste très présent et la discontinuité règne.</p> 2019-09-03T09:12:21+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/103 Comparing Habitats Video Archive 2019-09-12T16:08:35+00:00 ojsadmin info@contourjournal.org <p>We propose here a selection of video recordings made during the symposium.</p> 2019-08-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/88 A Geography of Dispersed Urbanization 2019-09-12T16:08:35+00:00 Guillaume Vanneste guillaume.vanneste@uclouvain.be <p>In the contemporary city, today’s dispersed urbanization and fragmentary spatial conditions are the result of a long-term process of construction of the territory (Corboz 1983, Marot 2003, Indovina 1990). Constant relations between humans and nature have built artefacts organizing the space inside which we live and move. Within this structure, the acute, repeated and iterative modifications, divisions or merging of plots are agents at work in the constitution of <em>a fond territorial</em>, a palimpsest (Corboz, 2001), which profoundly impacts the construction of this layered and intermeshed territory. In the evolution of this palimpsest, the <em>parcellaire </em>is a determining element, as a lineal substrate for land and soils, welcoming further artefactual constructions, urban materials, agricultural elements, drawing landscapes. We can read the form of several territorialisms in the accumulation of these traces, since they are the spatialization of uses, movement, appropriation and ecological or societal organization human groups have founded on the territory in relation to other groups or materials.</p> 2019-06-17T13:28:10+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/86 Le sol agricole comme élément structurant de la Ville-Territoire. Exploration comparée entre le Grand-Ouest français et la Lombardie centrale 2019-09-12T16:08:37+00:00 Marine Durand marine.durand@epfl.ch <p>Cet article présente une des opérations de comparaison qui organise la recherche, portant sur le sol agricole comme élément structurant de la Ville-Territoire. La comparaison s’opère entre le Grand Ouest français et la Lombardie centrale, deux régions marquées par le phénomène de diffusion urbaine où le paradigme agricole a pendant longtemps été le seul agent de transformation du sol et du territoire. Avec une série d’explorations cartographiques et démographiques, l’opération compare la distribution de l’habitat en fonction des capacités du sol à produire, depuis le XIXe siècle jusqu’aux phases d’urbanisation des dernières décennies. Des sols pauvres conduiront ces territoires dans des directions opposées, de l’abandon de l’agriculture dans la plaine au nord de Milan qui s’industrialise à une révolution agricole en France, où, paradoxalement, il est aujourd’hui plus difficile de lire toute trace de la longue structuration agricole du territoire. La comparaison des distances entre établissements humains et de l’évolution de la population spatialisée révèle des structures agricoles propres, mettant en évidence des pistes spécifiques pour répondre à un défi commun, celui visant à faire de la menace qui pèse sur la ressource sol aujourd’hui une opportunité pour penser le futur de ces territoires à partir des échanges écosystémiques que le sol peut établir avec les autres éléments de la Ville-Territoire.</p> 2019-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/79 A Mirror Effect. Recomposition of the Industrial Valleys, Brussels and Montreal 2019-09-12T16:08:41+00:00 Marine Declève marine.decleve@uclouvain.be <p>This paper relates a comparative approach to the urbanisation processes of the valleys in Brussels and Montreal by the students of the <em>atelier d’urbanisme opérationnel </em>from the graduate master program in urbanism and spatial planning at UCLouvain (Belgium). During the <em>atelier </em>students have been working on a historical and prospective reading of the industrial valleys within the Brussels and Montreal metropolitan areas, subject in both cases to a strong real estate pressure. The purpose of the atelier was to investigate on the urbanisation processes with a special focus on mixed uses produced inside the valley by the proximity of residential and industrial spaces. The comparison between the images of the students’ projects, historical images and images of ongoing development projects have been envisioned for the subsequent research as a tool to understand how the student’s projects addressed the local and historical contexts. The work aims to contribute to the ongoing planning debate in Brussels, searching for the potentials of building resilience as well as maintaining productive activities inside the valley.</p> 2019-03-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/90 Comparing Field-Recordings: Listening in and listening to Hong Kong 2019-09-12T16:08:44+00:00 Andrin Uetz andrin.uetz@wbkolleg.unibe.ch <p>Strolling through street markets in Monk Kok, bypassing the cacophony of EDM from Lan Kwai Fong’s nightclubs, slurping soup noodles in a Sai Ying Pun local restaurant or taking a breather in Sun Yat Sen Memorial Park; while recording Hong Kong city sounds with Soundman OKM II binaural microphones I asked myself many times what I actually was doing. In two fieldwork sessions, one in February 2017 and one in March 2018 I was collecting sound recordings from various places in Hong Kong with a focus on the quarters of Sai Ying Pun on Hong Kong Island and Mong Kok on the Kowloon peninsula. While most parts of Hong Kong are characterized by a high density of inhabitants, Mong Kok stands out with up to 130,000 inhabitants per square kilometer. On top of that it is perennially frequented by both tourists and locals for shopping, food and entertainment. Sai Ying Pun is a gentrified residential neighborhood that became increasingly popular with expats due to the newly built MTR connection to the city center. It is also densely populated (57,000 inhabitants per square kilometer) and characterized by pencil towers (cf. Christ and Gantenbein) that are located along the steep slopes of Victoria Peak and on reclaimed land along Victoria Harbour. Yet, its streets are less crowded than those in Mong Kok and especially up the hills it can be relatively quiet. Analyzing the sounds of these neighborhoods provides means for a time considering comparison of intensities of activity and usage of public space. The cases of Mong Kok and Sai Ying Pun are especially interesting, because while both are shaped by its vertical expansion, Mong Kok has a much higher amount of visitors moving in and out horizontally. Sai Ying Pun instead feels more like a community, where people walk from flat to shop and back to flat, but due to the high amount of flats, it still has a density of shops to be characterized as downtown. Roughly Sai Ying Pun could be categorized as a residential area with a lot of shops, Mong Kok as a shopping area with a lot of residents.</p> <p>The use of in-ear microphones allows to reproduce the heard sounds three-dimensionally when played with headphones. This facilitates the understanding the actual experience of listening in places, even though it cannot substitute it. Listening with or without the microphones are two different things, and as I tried to listen to the city as casually as possible, the microphones felt like something that would interfere with a day-to-day Hong Kong listening experience. It seems that sound recordings are useful for typical soundscape studies, in which different city sounds are located, contextualized and distinguished into keynote sounds, signals, and sound marks (cf. Schafer). The actual experience of listening in a city thus seems unreproducible.</p> <p>In this paper, I want to address different aspects of comparison that are crucial for an anthropology of sound. I want to show that listening always involves a form of comparison. I argue that the comparability of sound recordings was crucial for the development of what is now called ethnomusicology. I want to stress the difference between listening to sound recordings and listening in situ. I will try to illustrate my point with examples from my research considering the soundscape of density in Mong Kok and Sai Ying Pun.&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-17T13:23:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/91 Le principe de complémentarité 2019-09-12T16:08:52+00:00 Alessandro Porotto alessandro.porotto@epfl.ch <p>L’identification d’un principe de complémentarité pour les modèles architecturaux des années Vingt correspond à l’utilisation d’une méthode comparative, qui permet d’observer et analyser de manière approfondie les initiatives de logements de masse. Cette contribution explore les cas les plus remarquables de logements de masse du contexte européen&nbsp;: à travers des re-dessins précis et homogènes élaborés par l’auteur, les expériences de Vienne et Francfort sont confrontées avec le degré maximum d’impartialité. Grâce aux instruments propres de l’architecte comme la typologie et l’étude des formes urbaines, il est possible de distinguer de manière claire les îlots à cour de Vienne (Höfe) et les complexes en barres de Francfort (Siedlungen). Ces formes urbaines correspondent à des choix architecturaux et urbains qui constituent les polarités extrêmes des interventions de cette époque. La méthode comparative proposée dans cette contribution vise à réexaminer de façon critique une tradition qui a subi l’influence des schémas concernant la dissolution de l’îlot vers la construction en barre. L’objectif est de considérer Vienne et Francfort comme deux modèles architecturaux complémentaires du même débat commun. Au sein de la recherche scientifique, la comparaison ne devrait pas établir si un modèle a prévalu sur l’autre, mais offrir un regard impartial pour valoriser la complexité de la production architecturale de logements de masse des années Vingt.</p> <p>Vienne&nbsp;; Francfort&nbsp;; Hof&nbsp;; Siedlung&nbsp;; Logement de masse</p> 2019-06-17T13:21:14+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/92 The Challenges of “Comparative Urbanism” in Post-Fordist Cities: The cases of Turin and Detroit 2019-09-12T16:08:58+00:00 Asma Mehan asma.mehan@polito.it <p class="ContourParagraph">In 1947, the U.S. Secretary of State, George C. Marshall announced that the USA would provide development aid to help the recovery and reconstruction of the economies of Europe, which was widely known as the ‘Marshall Plan’. In Italy, this plan generated a resurgence of modern industrialization and remodeled Italian Industry based on American models of production. As the result of these transnational transfers, the systemic approach known as Fordism largely succeeded and allowed some Italian firms such as Fiat to flourish. During this period, Detroit and Turin, homes to the most powerful automobile corporations of the twentieth century, became intertwined in a web of common features such as industrial concentration, mass flows of immigrations, uneven urban sprawl, radical iconography and inner-city decay, which characterized Fordism in both cities. In the crucial decades of the postwar expansion of the automobile industries, both cities were hubs of labor battles and social movements. However, after the radical decline in their industries as previous auto cities, they experienced the radical shift toward post-Fordist urbanization and production of political urbanism. This research responds to the recent interest for a comparative (re)turn in urban studies by suggesting the conceptual theoretical baseline for the proposed comparative framework in post-Fordist cities. In better words, it develops a “theory” on the challenges of comparative urbanism in post-Fordist cities.</p> 2019-06-17T13:20:13+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/93 Typologies du chalet à l’ère industrielle : questions de définition et de périodisation du chalet, objet d’architecture, d’urbanisme et de patrimonialisation 2019-09-12T16:09:02+00:00 Pauline Nerfin Pauline.Nerfin@unige.ch <p>Dans le cadre de ma thèse dont le titre provisoire est <em>Le phénomène du chalet suisse préfabriqué (1850-1930)&nbsp;: processus de production, déclinaison, diffusion, </em>je m’intéresse particulièrement à la typologie du chalet au moment où celui-ci quitte sa forme vernaculaire et sa réalisation artisanale pour devenir un produit semi-industriel. Si dès 1761, grâce au <em>best-seller </em>de Jean-Jacques Rousseau intitulé <em>Julie ou la nouvelle Héloïse</em>, les paysages helvétiques et le terme du chalet sont popularisés dans toute l’Europe, il faut attendre la moitié du XIX<sup>e</sup> siècle pour le commencement d’une véritable entreprise d’import-export. Dès 1850, avec l’avènement du chemin de fer, l’essor de la bourgeoisie et les innovations techniques dans l’art du sciage de bois, l’on assiste, en Suisse mais pas seulement, à la naissance de multitudes de proto-industries, souvent appelées «&nbsp;fabriques&nbsp;», qui proposent des maisons d’habitations en bois sur catalogues&nbsp;: le fameux chalet suisse. Le chalet préfabriqué, en <em>kit, </em>objet de ma recherche de thèse, correspond au troisième type que je me propose d’analyser plus loin dans le texte. Le premier type étant le chalet vernaculaire, et le deuxième type, la villa-chalet, dite aussi chalet folklorique ou néo-vernaculaire. Pour chacun de ces trois types, plusieurs exemples seront donnés, puis réunis dans un tableau comparatif, afin de les inscrire dans une frise temporelle, proposant par là-même, une évolution historique. L’esquisse d’une évolution historique, loin de constituer le résultat du présent essai, rendra plus évidente la nécessité de procéder à une définition même du chalet, en considérant que les conditions de production industrielle affectent les conditions mêmes de cet objet d’étude. D’archétype associé intiment à une réalité régionale, la production industrielle oblige d’appréhender le chalet en tant que prototype aux liens bien plus distendus avec le contexte de son implantation.</p> 2019-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/89 Espace collectif et bien commun. Mise à l’épreuve d’une transposition interdisciplinaire 2019-09-12T16:09:09+00:00 Valentin Bourdon valentin.bourdon@epfl.ch <p>L’effervescence avec laquelle le domaine de l’architecture s’est emparé du « commun » ces dernières années s’est principalement cristallisée dans la remise en cause des modèles architecturaux qui nous ont précédés et de célébration de l’informel. Pour appréhender les formalisations spatiales que pourrait porter une telle notion, il apparaît néanmoins utile de considérer le regain d’intérêt qui lui est accordé au regard d’un composant préexistant de la culture architecturale&nbsp;: l’espace collectif. En quoi le recours à ce statut architectural établi, revendiquant déjà une certaine autonomie entre l’espace public et le domaine privé, ne pourrait-il pas constituer une possible formalisation architecturale du commun ? L’analyse comparative d’un certain nombre d’exemples historiques cherche dans un premier temps à rendre compte des conditions d’émergence de spatialités bénéficiant d’un statut à part entière, potentiellement comparables à des biens communs. Les principales caractéristiques de ces espaces collectifs sont ensuite confrontées à celles des communs traditionnels, interrogeant leurs possibilités de recouvrement. La nature des rapprochements identifiés invite probablement la pratique architecturale à revendiquer une idée du commun qui lui est propre.</p> 2019-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/94 How Urban Sustainability Principles Feed into Project Goals and Evaluation Processes. A Comparative Reading of Two Intelligent Transport and Mobility Systems Projects 2019-09-12T16:09:12+00:00 Marika Rupeka marika.rupeka@univ-paris-est.fr <p class="ContourParagraph">There is an ongoing scholarly debate on the extent to which technological and organizational innovation can provide the necessary support to achieve urban sustainability and, by extension, how relevant it is to fund research and development from the public budget. The intelligent transport systems concept has provided a fertile ground to formalize the promise of simultaneously delivering social wellbeing, environmental health and economic development. Knowing that such categories as costs and benefits are always relative, situated and conditioned, what makes it possible to ensure that a new transport infrastructure or mobility service will prove relevant to distinct social and economic configurations, and in specific territorial contexts and time frames? The proposed research paper investigates how sustainability relates to project goals and evaluation processes by doing a comparative analysis of two intelligent transport systems projects that were funded through national ‘innovation budgets’ with explicit reference to sustainability as an overarching goal: the ‘Phileas’ bus-way infrastructure project in Eindhoven, the Netherlands (2000-2007), and the ‘MK: Smart’ data creation and sharing system in Milton Keynes, the United Kingdom (2014-2016). Our analysis reveals that funding authorities give project leaders considerable (methodological) leeway in interpreting the sustainability paradigm and determining monitoring and evaluation frameworks. To successfully achieve these goals and provide evidence project teams rely heavily on existing environmental policies, local demographic perspectives, spatial-economic development strategies, and the competencies of advocacy organizations and citizen associations that appear as intermediaries expressing inhabitants’ needs. They use these specifically local elements as frameworks within which the proposed organizational and technological novelties can be handled so as to ensure their usefulness to specific social, economic or spatial configurations (types of users, spaces, temporalities, etc.).</p> 2019-06-17T13:04:25+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/95 New Imagining in Palestine: Too Sensitive, Too Daring or Too Naïve. 2019-09-12T16:09:16+00:00 Dorota Kozaczuk dorota.kozaczuk@graduateinstitute.ch <p>The paper offers an auto-ethnographic note from the Jerusalem Urban Resilience Studio workshop in Palestine during summer 2011. The ethnographic note describes participants' efforts to plan for the new East Jerusalem neighbourhood All Addasseh and introduces three different visions: two proposed by groups that formed in the course of the seven weeks in Palestine and authors own interpretation as an Architecture Diploma Student in London in the academic year 2011-2012. Analysis of the visions conceived in the course of the workshop is complemented by the description of the groups and intergroup dynamics. The following theoretical discussion offers insight into the anthropology of expert knowledge. It is organized around concepts from the ontological vocabulary of architecture and planning: imagining, praxis and reality. I will argue that study of architects and planner's proposals need to account for many realities the professionals operate in including their professional conditioning and interests, their dialectic with found site and broader social context they practice in. The analysis problematizes the internationals’ offering their expertise in a politically contested place.</p> 2019-06-17T13:03:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/97 Steel versus Asphalt: The Politics of Infrastructure in Post-Independence East Africa 2019-09-12T16:09:17+00:00 Giulia Scotto giulia.scotto@unibas.ch <p>On the 1st of August 2017, I step on an old Chinese train in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The aim of my trip was not simply to reach Kapiri Mposhi, the Zambian city which lies at the other end of the tracks, but to be on that train, to be in the in-between space of infrastructure in order to understand how it operates and what are the consequences of its presence on the territories we were crossing. During the following 64 hours we climbed mountains, we crossed plains, natural reserves, deserts, marshes, woods, tunnels, bridges, villages, cities and one national border. My first-class wagon was crowded with “Musungu” (white in Swahili) tourists going to inner Tanzania for a safari tour or heading to the South of Zambia to see the Victoria Falls.&nbsp; But many other people were sitting on that train with their bulky luggage. Unlike me, they all had a destination. Most of them, with their sacks, boxes, baskets, backpacks and matrasses would step off the train before the end of the line.</p> <p>I had been reading about that train before&nbsp; I ever stepped onboard, I knew the answer to many of the questions we usually don’t even ask ourselves while traveling. I knew that the railway was a project envisioned by Zambia and Tanzania right after their independence to emancipate themselves from white colonial domination, I knew that the project was built by the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in the 1970s, I knew its symbolic and political significance but there were also many things I didn’t know, many things that are not written in books. I had to be there, I had to experience them or, to say it with Bruce Robbins’s words, I had to breathe the “smell of infrastructure”, (Robbins, 2007) to experience the freezing temperature of the Iringa region, the 16 hours delay, the changing rhythm of the train and the noise of the breaks before entering the stations.</p> <p>From my window seat, I kept on staring at the landscape and at the highway which runs almost parallel to the railway. The road keeps on changing in size, width and materiality, but it is always the same road: the TANZAM highway. I had been reading about the highway too, I knew that it was originally built to convey British troops to the German front during World War I, I knew it was paved for the first time thanks to the World Bank and other western donors, I knew a lot but I knew nothing about that road before being there. I didn’t know the dust, the potholes and the variety of vehicles which can be found on the highway, the changing colours of the landscape and its silence at night.</p> <p>The steel lines of the tracks and the asphalt strip of the road are now part of the palimpsest of the territory like rivers, hills and lakes have been long before the train arrived (Corboz, 1983). They created a new geography and defined a new territorial structure. They affected the patterns of mobility, of urbanization, of production and consumption.</p> <p>In our everyday life, we rarely experience infrastructure with this level of awareness, it is merely an instrument we use to reach places or to send goods. Infrastructure resides in a “naturalized background” (Edwards 2003), it is always out of focus. Walter Benjamin wrote that architecture is the prototype of artwork we experience in a state of distraction (Benjamin 2008). If this is true of Architecture, it is even more true of infrastructure.</p> 2019-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Contour Journal http://contourjournal.org/index.php/contour/article/view/96 Liminal Centres: Central São Paulo and Guadalajara between Vacancy and Occupancy 2019-09-12T16:09:22+00:00 Luis Angel Flores Hernandez luisangel.floreshernandez@kuleuven.be Jeroen Stevens jeroen.stevens@kuleuven.be <p>By means of a comparative diachronic analysis of the urban centres of São Paulo (Brazil) and Guadalajara (Mexico), this article develops the notion of ‘liminal centre’ for coming to terms with the distinctive ambivalent urban condition of Latin American historical urban centres. It unfolds a <em>long-durée </em>urban development history of both centres, drawing particular attention to the iterative making and remaking of their material urban forms, consisting of principle landscape features such as geomorphology, topography and vegetation, as well as the built materiality of urban morphologies, plot structures and building topologies, as they mutated throughout five centuries of urbanization. Historical cartography, urban analysis and fieldwork observations provide therefore the main data sources. Bound up with broader Latin American urbanization patterns, both cases illustrate notorious iterations of vacancy and occupancy, eternally alternating between planned interventions and spontaneous practices of various social groups. Both centres consequently appear wedged between formal and informal constituents of urbanism, incessantly oscillating between sheer decay and prompt renewal, between abundant vacancy and thriving occupancy. ‘Spatial liminality’ will therefore be proposed as a useful theoretical denominator for capturing such paradoxical and ambiguous urban condition.</p> 2019-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Contour Journal